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Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 88, 249-269.

Manlay, R.J., Ickowicz, A., Masse, D., Feller, C. & Richard, D. 2004a. Spatial carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus budget in a village of the West African savanna--II. Element flows and functioning of a mixed-farming system. Agricultural Systems, 79, 83-107.

Manlay, R.J., Ickowicz, A., Masse, D., Floret, C., Richard, D. & Feller, C. 2004b. Spatial carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus budget of a village in the West African savanna--I. Element pools and structure of a mixed-farming system. Agricultural Systems, 79, 55-81.

Manlay, R.J., Kaire, M., Masse, D., Chotte, J.-L., Ciornei, G. & Floret, C. 2002b. Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus allocation in agro-ecosystems of a West African savanna: I. The plant component under semi-permanent cultivation. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 88, 215-232.

Manlay, R.J., Masse, D., Chotte, J.-L., Feller, C., Kaire, M., Fardoux, J. & Pontanier, R. 2002c. Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus allocation in agro-ecosystems of a West African savanna; II. The soil component under semi-permanent cultivation. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environnement, 88, 233-248.

Marschner, P. & Timonen, S. 2005. Interactions between plant species and mycorrhizal colonization on the bacterial community composition in the rhizosphere. Applied Soil Ecology, 28, 23-36.

Masse, D., Cadet, P., Chotte, J.-L., Diatta, M., Floret, C., N'Diaye-Faye, N., Pate, E., Pontanier , R., Thioulouse, J. & Villenave, C. 1998. Jachères naturelles et restauration des propriétés des sols en zone semi-aride. Cas du Sénégal. Agriculture et Développement, 18, 31-38.

Masse, D., Dembélé, F., LeFloc'h, E. & Yossi, H. 1997. Impact de la gestion des feux de brousse sur la qualité des sols des jachères de courtes durées dans les régions soudaniennes du Mali. In: Soil fertility management in West African land use systems (eds G. Renard, A. Neef, K. Becker & M. von Oppen), pp. 115-122. Margraf Verlag, Germany.

Masse, D., Manlay, R.J., Diatta, M., Pontanier, R. & Chotte, J.-L. 2004. Soil organic matter dynamic and nutrients balance in a short-term fallows with different types of vegetation experiments in Senegal. Soil Use and Management, 20, 92-95.

Masse, D., Silva Da Conceicao, K., Diatta, M. & Madinan, I. 2000. Végétation des jachères de courte durée et rendement du mil après défriche au Sénégal. In: La Jachère en Afrique tropicale. Rôles, Aménagements, Alternatives (eds C. Floret & R. Pontanier), pp. 127-134. John Libbey Eurotext, Paris.

Menaut, J.C., Lepage, M. & Abbadie, L. 1995. Savannas, woodlands and dry forests in Africa. In: Seasonally dry tropical forests (eds S.H. Bullock, H.A. Mooney & E. Medina), pp. 64-92. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Mordelet, P., Barot, S. & Abbadie, L. 1996. Root foraging strategies and soil patchiness in a humid savanna. Plant and Soil, 182, 171-176.

Morel, R. 1989. Les sols cultivés. Lavoisier, Paris.

Ndienor, M. 2006. Analyse des modes de gestion de la fertilisation dans les systèmes maraîchers de l’agglomération d’Antananarivo (Madagascar). Etude de l’intérêt agronomique de l’utilisation de déchets urbains dans ces systèmes, INAPG, Paris.

Ndour, N.Y., Chotte, J.L., Pate, E., Masse, D. & Rouland, C. 2001. Natural and improved fallows in tropical semi-arid zone (Sénégal) : variations in soil enzyme activities. Applied Soil Ecology, 18, 229-238.

N'Dour, Y.B., Fardoux, J. & Chotte, J.-L. 2000. Statut organique et microbiologique de sols ferrugineux tropicaux en jachère naturelle (Sénégal). In: La Jachère en Afrique tropicale. Rôles, Aménagements, Alternatives (eds C. Floret & R. Pontanier), pp. 354-360. John Libbey Eurotext, Paris.

Nunan, N., Ritz, K., Crabb, D., Harris, K., Wu, K., Crawford, J.W. & Young, I.M. 2001. Quantification of the in situ distribution of soil bacteria by large-scale imaging of thin sections of undisturbed soil. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 37, 67-77.

Nunan, N., Wu, K., Young, I.M., Crawford, J.W. & Ritz, K. 2002. In situ spatial patterns of soil bacterial populations, mapped at multiple scales, in an arable soil. Microbial Ecology, 44, 296-305.

Nye, P.H. & Greenland, D.J. 1960. The soil under shifting cultivation. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal.

Ouattara, B., Serpantié, G., Ouattara, K., Hien, V., Lompo, T. & Bilgo, A. 1997. Etats physico-chimiques des sols cultivables en zone cotonnière du Burkina Faso. Effets de l'histoire culturale et du type de milieu. In: Jachère et maintien de la fertilité (eds C. Floret & R. Pontanier), pp. 17-32. IER-ORSTOM, Bamako, Mali.

Paul, E.A. & Clark, F.E. 1996. Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry. Academic Press, San Diego, USA.

Perry, D.A., Amaranthus, M.P., Borchers, J.G., Borchers, S.L. & Brainerd, R.E. 1989. Bootstrapping in Ecosystems. Internal interactions largely determine productivity and stability in biological systems with strong positive feedback. BioScience, 39, 230-237.

Perry, G.L.W., Miller, B.P. & Enright, N.J. 2006. A comparison of methods for the statistical analysis of spatial point patterns in plant ecology. Plant Ecology, V187, 59-82.

Personeni, E., Luscher, A. & Loiseau, P. 2005. Rhizosphere activity, grass species and N availability effects on the soil C and N cycles. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 37, 819-827.

Pieri, C. 1989. Fertilité des Terres de Savanes. Ministère de la Coopération - CIRAD, Paris.

Powell, J.M., Fernandez-Rivera, S., Hiernaux, P. & Turner, M.D. 1996. Nutrient cycling in integrated rangeland/cropland systems of the sahel. Agricultural Systems, 52, 143-170.

Ranjard, L., Brothier, E. & Nazaret, S. 2000. Sequencing bands os ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis fingerprints for characterization and microscale distribution of soil bacterium populations responding to mercury spiking. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66, 5334-5339.

Roose, E. & Barthes, B. 2001. Organic matter management for soil conservation and productivity restoration in Africa: a contribution from Francophone research. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 61, 159-170.

Rowe, E.C., van Wijk, M.T., de Ridder, N. & Giller, K.E. 2006. Nutrient allocation strategies across a simplified heterogeneous African smallholder farm. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 116, 60-71.

Roy, S. & Singh, J.S. 1995. Seasonal and spatial dynamics of plant-available N and P pools and N-mineralization in relation to fine roots in a dry tropical forest habitat. Soil Biol. Biochem., 27, 33-40.

Sall, S.N. 2004. Importance des relations "Résidus végétaux-Communautés microbiennes" sur les processus de décomposition dans un sol ferrugineux tropical (Sénégal) : effet de la disponibilité de l'azote, Université Paris XII, Paris.

Sall, S.N., Masse, D., Bernhard-Reversat, F., Guisse, A. & Chotte, J.-L. 2003. Microbial activities during the early stage of laboratory decomposition in tropical leaf litters: the effect of interactions between litter quality and exogenous inorganic nitrogen. Biology & Fertility of Soil, 39, 103-111.

Sall, S.N., Masse, D., Ndour, N.Y.B. & Chotte, J.-L. 2006. Does cropping modify the decomposition function and the diversity of the soil microbial community of tropical fallow soil? Applied Soil Ecology, 31, 211-219.

Samake, O., Smaling, E.M.A., Kropff, M.J., Stomph, T.J. & Kodio, A. 2005. Effects of cultivation practices on spatial variation of soil fertility and millet yields in the Sahel of Mali. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 109, 335-345.

Sarr, M., Agboba, A. & Russel-Smith, A. 2000. Abondance et diversité des termites dans les jachères sahéliennes. Effets des termites et autres macrofaunes du sol sur l'infiltration de l'eau. In: La jachère en Afrique tropicale. Rôles, Aménagements, Alternatives. (eds C. Floret & R. Pontanier), pp. 242-249. John Libbey Eurotext, Paris.

Sarr, M., Agbogba, C. & Russell-Smith, A. 1998. The effects of length of fallow and cultivation on termite abundance and diversity in the sahelian zone of Senegal : A preliminary note. Pedobiologia, 42, 56-62.

Schimel, J.P. & Bennett, J. 2004. Nitrogen mineralization: Challenges of a changing paradigm. Ecology, 85, 591–602.

Shepherd, K.D., Palm, C.A., Gachengo, C.N. & Vanlauwe, B. 2003. Rapid Characterization of Organic Resource Quality for Soil and Livestock Management in Tropical Agroecosystems Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Agronomy Journal, 95, 1314-1322.

Shepherd, K.D. & Walsh, M.G. 2007. Infrared spectroscopy—enabling an evidence-based diagnostic surveillance approach to agricultural and environmental management in developing countries. Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy, 15, 1–20.

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Six, J., Bossuyt, H., Degryze, S. & Denef, K. 2004. A history of research on the link between (micro)aggregates, soil biota, and soil organic matter dynamics. Soil and Tillage Research, 79, 7-31.

Six, J., Elliott, E.T. & Paustian, K. 2000. Soil macroaggregate turnover and microaggregate formation: a mechanism for C sequestration under no-tillage agriculture. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32, 2099-2103.

Söderström, B., Baath, E. & Lundgren, B. 1983. Decrease in soil microbial activity and biomasses owing to nitrogen amendments. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 29, 1500-1506.

Stark, C.H.E., Condron, L.M., Stewart, A., Di, H.J. & O'Callaghan, M. 2004. Small-scale spatial variability of selected soil biological properties. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 36, 601-608.

Swift, M.J. 1998. L'intégration de la société, des systèmes et des sols. in 16ème Congrès mondial de science du sol, Montpellier, France.

Tiessen, H., Cuevas, E. & Chacon, N. 1994. The role of organic matter in sustaining soil fertility. Nature, 371, 783-785.

Tilman, D. 1998. The greening of the green revolution. Nature, 396, 211-212.

Tilman, D. & Downing, J.A. 1994. Biodiversity and stability in grasslands. Nature, 367, 363-365.

Tisdall, J.M. & Oades, J.M. 1982. Organic matter and water-stable aggregates in soils. Journal of Soil Science, 33, 141-163.

Tittonell, P., Leffelaar, P.A., Vanlauwe, B., van Wijk, M.T. & Giller, K.E. 2006. Exploring diversity of crop and soil management within smallholder African farms: A dynamic model for simulation of N balances and use efficiencies at field scale. Agricultural Systems, 91, 71-101.

Tittonell, P., Vanlauwe, B., de Ridder, N. & Giller, K.E. In press. Heterogeneity of crop productivity and resource use efficiency within smallholder Kenyan farms: Soil fertility gradients or management intensity gradients? Agricultural Systems, doi:10.1016/j.agsy.2006.10.012.

Tittonell, P., Vanlauwe, B., Leffelaar, P.A., Rowe, E.C. & Giller, K.E. 2005a. Exploring diversity in soil fertility management of smallholder farms in western Kenya: I. Heterogeneity at region and farm scale. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 110, 149-165.

Tittonell, P., Vanlauwe, B., Leffelaar, P.A., Shepherd, K.D. & Giller, K.E. 2005b. Exploring diversity in soil fertility management of smallholder farms in western Kenya: II. Within-farm variability in resource allocation, nutrient flows and soil fertility status. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 110, 166-184.

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Vieublé-Gonod, L., Chenu, C. & Soulas, G. 2003. Spatial variability of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) mineralisation potential at a millimetre scale in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 35, 373-382.

Villenave, C. & Cadet, P. 2000. Rôle particulier de Heliconthylenchus dihystera au sein des peuplements de nématodes phytoparasites (Sénégal). In: La Jachère en Afrique tropicale. Rôles, Aménagements, Alternatives (eds C. Floret & R. Pontanier), pp. 291-299. John Libbey Eurotext, Paris.

Vogel, J., Normand, P., Thioulouse, J., Nesme, X. & Grundmann, G. 2003. Relationship between spatial and genetic distance in Agrobacterium spp. in 1 cubic centimeter of soil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69, 1482-1487.

Wijesinghe, D.K. & Hutchings, M.J. 1999. The effects of environmental heterogeneity on the performance of Glechoma hederacea: the interactions between patch contrast and patch scale. Journal of Ecology, 87, 860-872.

Wijesinghe, D.K., John, E.A. & Hutchings, M.J. 2005. Does pattern of soil resource heterogeneity determine plant community structure? An experimental investigation. Journal of Ecology, 93, 99-112.

Woomer, P.L. & Swift, M.J. 1994. The biological management of tropical soil fertility. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK.

Young, I.M. & Crawford, J.W. 2004. Interactions and self-organization in the soil-microbe complex. Science, 304, 1634-1637.



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